Disease Categories / Sapronoses

Diseas Scope Incubation
Actinomycosis Global Days to months after precipitating event, e.g., trauma; [CCDM, p. 2]
Amebic meningoencephalitis Global PAM: 1-7 days (average of 5 days); GAE: longer; [CCDM] GAE: weeks to months; Keratitis: days; [PPID, p. 3294t]
Aspergillosis Global Estimated 2 days to 3 months; [CCDM, p. 59]
Blastomycosis Most cases reported in N. America; [Harrison ID] USA & Canada bordering Mississippi, Ohio, & St. Lawrence Rivers & Great Lakes; Also in parts of Africa, India, Middle East, Central & S. America; [CCDM] Weeks to months; median of 1.5 months; [CCDM]
Buruli ulcer Reported in more than 30 countries, mostly tropical; [CCDM] Endemic in tropical, rural wetlands; [Guerrant, p. 248] See maps at http://www.who.int/buruli/country/ About 2-3 months; Could be longer periods of latency; [CCDM, p. 83]
Candidiasis Global Varies; Thrush in infants: 3-5 days; [CCDM, p. 85]
Chromoblastomycosis Worldwide, but mainly barefoot farmers in tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa; [CCDM] Months
Coccidioidomycosis Arid regions of Western hemisphere (central & southern California to southern Texas, northern Argentina, northeastern Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Venezuela, and Central America); [CCDM] 7-21 days; [CDC Travel]
Cryptococcosis Global; In a given country, cases tend to follow the AIDS epidemic; [CCDM] Unknown for C. neoformans; Meningitis follows pulmonary infection by months or years; C. Gattii: 2-13 months; [CCDM, p. 135]
Fusariosis Global 48 days (median time from stem cell transplantation to diagnosis); [ABX Guide]
Histoplasmosis Americas, Africa, eastern Asia, & Australia; Rare in Europe; After exposure to dust contaminated with bird, chicken, or bat droppings; [CCDM] Global; African histo: cases reported (only a few 100) in Uganda, Nigeria, Zaire & Senegal; [PPID, p. 3162, 3171] 7-21 days, usually <15 days; [PPID, p. 3166]
Legionellosis Global 2-10 days, usually 5-6 days; [CCDM]
Melioidosis Highly endemic in NE Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, & N. Australia; [CDC Travel, p. 292] Cases reported in tropical & subtropical Asia, Australia/Pacific Islands, India, & less in Middle East, Latin America, & Caribbean; Extent in Africa not known; [CCDM] 1-21 days or as short as a few hours after high dose exposure; Latent foci may reactivate years after exposure; [CCDM, p. 399]
Mucormycosis Global Unknown; Mucormycosis spreads rapidly in the debilitated patient in which case it is, "the most fulminant fungal infection known." [CCDM, p. 416-7] Estimated: 3 days to 3 months;
Mycetoma Global, but most common in tropical and subtropical areas and in areas where farmers and laborers do not wear shoes; Causative agents vary with region; [PPID, p. 3142] Months to years; [CCDM]
Mycobacterium marinum infections Global Typically 2-4 weeks, but can be longer; [ABX Guide]
Nocardiosis Global; Actinomycetoma (chronic skin and subcutaneous disease with nodules & draining sinuses) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions; [Harrison ID, p. 589] Estimated a few days to a few weeks; [CCDM, p. 426]
Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections Global; M. ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer in tropical areas of Australia, Africa, and Southeast Asia, but not in the U.S. M. abscessus is endemic to southeastern USA (Florida & Texas); 10-21 days for MAC to grow on solid media; [ABX Guide: M. avium-complex]
Paracoccidioidomycosis Tropical & subtropical Latin America from Mexico to Argentina, but absent in Chile and Caribbean Islands; Highest endemicity in Brazil and lowest in Colombia, Venezuela, Belize, Nicaragua, the Guianas, Ecuador, and Argentina; [CCDM] 1 month to many years; [CCDM]
Penicillium marneffei infection Southeast Asia & southern China (Thailand, Myanmar, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Vietnam & Guangxi province of China); {PPID, p. 3230] Also in India (Manipur State), Cambodia, & Guangdong province (China); [Guerrant] Not known; Disease may represent reactivation--in one case a patient developed disease 10 years after visiting an endemic area; [PPID, p. 3230] Grows in culture within 2-5 days; [Guerrant]
Phaeohyphomycosis Global Estimated: days to weeks;
Sporotrichosis Global 1 week to 3 months; [CCDM]
Tetanus Global 3-21 days (average 8 days); Only 1-2 days for cephalic tetanus (rare); [Cecil, p. 1895]
Vibrio vulnificus infection Global 12-72 hours; [CCDM]