Disease Categories / Arthropod-Borne

Diseas Scope Incubation
African tick bite fever Sub-Saharan Africa & West Indies; Maculataum disease (R. parkeri) is a similar disease in North and South America; [Guerrant, p. 323-8] R. africae infections occur in the Caribbean; [Harrison ID, p. 692] 5-7 days
Arthropod-borne viral arthritis and rash Chikungunya (Africa, India, SE Asia, Pacific Is., Mideast); Ross River (mainly Australia, also Papua New Guinea & Pacific Is.); Sindbis (Africa, N. Europe, rare in Asia & Australia); O'nyong-nyong (Africa); Mayaro (C. & northern S. America); [CCDM] 1-12 days; [CCDM]
Babesiosis Global; In USA, most cases on eastern seaboard and some cases reported in upper Midwest (Wisconsin and Minnesota); [CCDM] Main foci in US (>90% of cases) are in CT, MA, MN, NJ, NY, RI, and WI; [PPID, p. 3400] Usually 1 to 4 weeks after tick bite; As long as 176 days after transfusion; [PPID, p. 3404]
Bartonellosis At altitudes of 600 to 2,800 meters in Peru, Ecuador, and southwest Columbia; In recent years, cases reported in lower altitudes and in coastal lowlands of Ecuador; [CCDM] 2-3 weeks; occasionally 3-4 months
Colorado tick fever Western N. America in mountainous regions >4,000 feet; [PPID, p. 1980] Bhanja (Africa, Asia, & Europe); Dugbe (Africa); Nairobi sheep dis. (Africa, India); Quaranfil (Africa, Mideast); Huaiyangshan (E. Asia); Thogoto (Africa & Europe); [CCDM] 3-4 days; [CCDM, p. 31]
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Eastern Europe, Middle East, Africa, Central and Southern Asia; [CCDM] 1-12 days, usually 3-7 days; [CCDM]
Dengue fever Cases reported in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, the Americas, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Africa; [CCDM] 5-7 days (range of 3-10 days); [CDC Travel]
Dirofilariasis D. immitis, the dog heartworm, is widespread in metropolitan areas of the world. D. repens infects dogs and cats in Europe, Africa, SE Asia, and elsewhere. D. tenuis has been identified in North America. [Guerrant, p. 751] 3-6 months for filariasis;
Ehrlichiosis HME: North & South America; HGA: North America, Europe & Asia; Sennetsu fever: Western Japan, Malaysia; Neoehrlichiosis: N. Europe & Asia; [CCDM] 7-14 days (14 days for Sennetsu fever); [CCDM]
Filariasis Long term travelers in "sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, southern Asia, the western Pacific islands, the northeastern coast of Brazil, Guyana, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic." [CDC Travel, p. 211] Microfilariae appear in blood: 3-6 months (B. malayi); 6-12 months (W. bancrofti); [CCDM]
Kyasanur forest disease India; [CCDM] 3-7 days (range of 1-12 days); [CCDM]
Leishmaniasis >90% of VL in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, S. Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya & Brazil; Occasional cases of CL in Texas & Oklahoma; [CDC Travel] 90% of mucocutaneous cases: Brazil, Bolivia & Peru. [PPID, 8th Ed, p. 3093] VL: 10 days to years; Usually 2-6 months; CL: a week to many months; [CCDM]
Loiasis African rain forests, especially in central Africa; [CCDM] Highest risk in southeastern Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, and the Democratic Republic of Congo; [ID, p. 2372] Symptoms: 4 months to several years; Microfilariae in blood: 6 months; [CCDM, p. 362]
Lyme disease USA, Canada, Europe, Russia, China & Japan; High incidence in eastern USA linked to repopulation of white-tailed deer, on which ticks feed; [CCDM] Erythema migrans: average of 7-10 days with range of 3-32 days; [CCDM]
Malaria Large areas of Africa, Central and South America, Hispaniola, Asia (Middle East & South/Southeast Asia), Eastern Europe, and South Pacific; [CDC Travel] 9 days to 2 weeks (P. falciparum); 12-18 days (P. vivax & P. ovale); 18-40 days (P. malariae); Some strains of P. vivax from temperate areas: 8-10 months; [CCDM, p. 374]
Mediterranean spotted fever Africa and India; Europe and Middle East adjacent to Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian seas; [CCDM] India, Pakistan, Israel, Russia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Ukraine, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Morocco & southern Europe; [PPID, p. 2355] 7 days (mean); [PPID, p. 2355] 2-21 days; [CCDM, p. 518]
Omsk hemorrhagic fever Western Siberia, Russia; [CCDM] 3-7 days (range of 1-12 days); [CCDM]
Onchocerciasis 99% of cases in sub-Saharan Africa (from Senegal and Ethiopia in the north to Angola and Malawi in the south); Focal endemic zones in Yemen, Venezuela, and Brazil; Has been eliminated in some areas; [CCDM] About one year for larvae from bite of black fly to develop into microfilariae; [CCDM, p. 439]
Plague Endemic in rural areas of central and southern Africa (eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, northwestern Uganda, Madagascar), central Asia, Indian subcontinent, northeastern South America, and southwestern USA; [CDC Travel] 2-6 days (bubonic plague); 1-3 days (primary pneumonic plague); [Cecil, p. 1957]
Relapsing fever is carried by lice and ticks. Tick-borne: worldwide; Louse-borne: endemic in central & east Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad, & the Sudan) and in high-altitude South America (Bolivia & Peru); [Cecil, 1996-7] Louse-borne: 5-15 days (usually 8 days); Tickborne: 2-18 days (usually 7 days); [CCDM]
Rickettsialpox Worldwide in urban and rural cycles; [ID, p. 1488] In urban centers of the former USSR, South Africa, Korea, Turkey, Balkan states, and North & South America; [CDC Travel, p. 326] 6-15 days; [CCDM]
Rickettsioses, spotted fever group See "Comments." 2-21 days; [CCDM]
Rift valley fever The virus is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa with epidemics reported in Egypt, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Sudan & S. Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, South Africa, Botswana, and Namibia; [CDC Travel, p. 374] 2-7 days; [CCDM]
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Canada, USA, Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina; [CCDM] 2-14 days with a median of 7 days; [PPID, p. 2352]
Sandfly fever Around the Mediterranean, through the Balkans, and into the Middle East and parts of China; [Harrison ID, p. 965] Also in western India, Pakistan, and Central America; [Cecil, p. 2225] 2-6 days; [Cecil, p. 2225]
Trench fever Epidemics occurred in Europe during the two world wars; People living in crowded, unhygienic conditions are at risk. [CCDM] 3-30 days; [CCDM]
Trypanosomiasis, African T.b. rhodesiense: E. & SE Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe); T.b. gambiense: central Africa & foci in West Africa (DRCongo, Congo, Angola, S. Sudan, Central African Republic, Guinea, Cameroon, Chad, & N. Uganda); [CDC Travel] 3 days to several weeks (East African); several months (West African); [CCDM]
Trypanosomiasis, American Mexico, Central America, and South America; In North America, at least 100,000 immigrants from endemic countries are infected with T. cruzi; [CCDM] 5-14 days after bitten by a kissing bug (blood-sucking species of Reduviidae); [CCDM]
Typhus, flea-borne endemic Global; occurs anywhere buildings are inhabited by rats and people; [CCDM] More prevalent in coastal cities in tropical and subtropical regions; [PPID, p. 2372] 1-2 weeks, usually about 12 days; [CCDM]
Typhus, louse-borne epidemic Central Africa, Asia, North/Central/South America; [CDC Travel] Endemic areas in mountainous Mexico, Central and South America, central and east Africa, and many countries in Asia; [CCDM] 1-2 weeks, usually 12 days; [CCDM]
Typhus, mite-borne scrub Central, eastern, and Southeast Asia; from southeastern Siberia and northern Japan to northern Australia and Vanuatu, as far west as Pakistan, and particularly prevalent in northern Thailand; [CCDM] 6-21 days, usually 10-12 days; [CCDM]
Venezuelan equine encephalitis Central and South America; [PPID, p. 1243] Usually 3-14 days; [CCDM]
Viral encephalitides, mosquito-borne Global Usually 3-14 days; [CCDM, p. 40]
Viral encephalitides, tick-borne TBE: endemic in focal areas of Europe & Asia; ~8000 cases/yr reported with most cases in Russia (highest in Siberia, Slovenia, & Baltic States); [CDC Travel] Louping ill: British Isles & W. Europe; Powassan: Canada, US, former USSR; [CCDM, 19th Ed] 8 days, range of 4-28 days, for TBEV; 3-4 days after milk exposure; [CDC Travel, p. 349]
West Nile virus infection Worldwide except Antarctica; First detected in Western Hemisphere in 1999 in New York and spread throughout North, Central, and South America; [CCDM, p. 677] 3-12 days
Yellow fever Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America; See Maps 4-13 & 4-14 for countries with risk of transmission.); [CDC Travel] 3-6 days; [CCDM]